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Review of techniques to characterize and treat fly ash and its employ (report D1.1 - D1.2 - D1.3)

Review of techniques to treat fly ash (D1.1)

Review of the employ of RHA fly ash (D1.2)

Review of techniques for RHA characterization (D1.3)

These reports are published in the book series Environmental Chemistry for a Sustainable Word (Springer) - 2014

http://www.springer.com/series/11480

Title of the chapter: Review of fly ash inertization treatments and recycling

 

Abstract:

This review addresses fly ash (FA) typology, composition, treatment, deposition, recycling, functional re-use, and metals and organic pollutants abatement. FA is a by-product of power and incineration plants operated either on coal and biomass, or municipal solid waste. Because of the general growing of environmental awareness and increasing energy and material demand, it is expected that increasing recycling rates will reduce the pressure on demand for primary raw materials, help to reuse valuable materials which would otherwise be wasted, and reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from extraction and processing. Because of the large amount of ash produced in the world, fly ash is now considered the world's fifth largest material resource. In this frame it is fundamental to exploit the chemical or physical potentials of FA constituents, thus, rendering them second-life functionality. FA can be divided in coal fly ash, obtained from power plant burning coal, flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) FA, that is the byproduct generated by the air pollution control equipment in coal-fired power plants to prevent (reduce) the release of SO2, biomass FA produces in the thermal conversion of biomass, and MSWI FA, that is the finest residue obtained from the scrubber system in a municipal solid waste incineration plant. Moreover, FA contain often pollutants as heavy metals and organic compounds. The composition of FA are very variable, depending on their origins, then also the pollutants can be very different. For example, MSWI fly ash are the most problematic ash in terms of contaminant content. The review paper addresses all the existing treatments for fly ash inertization, separately considering heavy metals entrapment or organic abatement. In this review it will be shown that FA is a valuable resource with potential employ in several applications like agriculture, synthesis of zeolite and geopolymer, adsorbent and building materials. Finally all advantages in fly ash recovery and re-use are discussed. It is show that FA employ will reduce landfilling disposal, raw materials employ, greenhouse gas emission and water consumption.

 In addition, the following paper: Review of fly ash inertisation treatments and recycling (DOI: 10.1007/s10311-014-0454-6), in: Environmental Chemistry Letters, has been publicated

 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10311-014-0454-6

Abstract

Fly ash (FA) is a by-product of power, and incineration plants operated either on coal and biomass, or on municipal solid waste. FA can be divided into coal fly ash, obtained from power plant burning coal, flue gas desulphurisation FA, that is, the by-product generated by the air pollution control equipment in coal-fired power plants to reduce the release of SO2, biomass FA produced in the plants for thermal conversion of biomass and municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) FA, that is, the finest residue obtained from the scrubber system in a MSWI plant. Because of the large amount produced in the world, fly ash is now considered the world’s fifth largest material resource. The composition of FA is very variable, depending on its origins; then, also pollutants can be very different. In this frame, it is fundamental to exploit the chemical or physical potentials of FA constituents, thus rendering them second-life functionality. This review paper is addressed to FA typology, composition, treatment, recycling, functional reuse and metal and organic pollutants abatement. Because of the general growing of environmental awareness and increasing energy and material demand, it is expected that increasing recycling rates will reduce the pressure on demand for primary raw materials, help to reuse valuable materials which would otherwise be wasted and reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from extraction and processing.

 


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